Connected Information

As a proponent of XML for legislation, I’m often asked why an XML approach is better than a more traditional approach using a word processor. The answer is simple – it’s all about connected information.

The digital end point in a legislative system can no longer be publication of PDFs. PDFs are nothing but a kludgy way to digitize paper — a way to preserve the old traditions and avoid the future. Try reading a PDF on a cell phone and you see the problem. Try clicking on a citation in a PDF and you see the problem. Try and scrape the information out of a PDF to make it computer readable and you see the problem. The only useful function that PDFs serve is as a bridge to the past.

The future is all about connected information — breaking the physical bounds of what we think of as a document and allowing the nuggets of information found within them to be connected, interrelated, and acted upon. This is the real reason why the future lies with XML and its related technologies.

In my blog last week I provided a brief glimpse into how our future amending tools will work. I explored how legislation could be managed similar to how software is managed with GitHub. This is an example of how useful connected information becomes. Rather than producing bills and amendments as paper documents, the information is stored in a way that it can be efficiently and accurately automated — and made available to the public in a computer readable way.

At Xcential, we’re building our new web-based authoring system — LegisPro. If you take a close look at it, you’ll see that it has two main components. Of course, there is a robust XML editor. However, at the system’s very heart is a linking system — something we call a resolver. It’s this resolver where the true power lies. It’s an HTTP-based system for managing all the linkages that exist in the system. It connects XML repositories, external data sources, and even SQL databases together to form a seamless universe of connected information.

We’re working hard to transform how legislation, and indeed, all government information is viewed. It’s not just about connecting laws and legislation together through simple web links. We talking about providing rich connections between all government information — tying financial data to laws and legislation, connecting regulatory information together, associating people, places, and things to government data, and on and on. We have barely started to scratch the surface, but it’s clear that the future lies with connected information.

While we today position LegisPro as a bill authoring system — it’s much more than that. It’s some of the fundamental underpinnings necessary for a system to transform government documents of today into the connected information of tomorrow.

Connected Information

Coming soon!!! A new web-based editor for Akoma Ntoso

I’ve been working hard for a long time — building an all new web-based editor for Akoma Ntoso. We will be showing it for the first time at the upcoming Akoma Ntoso LEX Summer School in Washington D.C.

Unlike our earlier AKN/Editor, this editor is a pure XML editor designed from the ground up using the XML capabilities that modern browsers possess. This editor is much more robust, more precise,  and is very scalable.


Basic Features

  1. Configurable XML models — including Akoma Ntoso and USLM
  2. Edit full documents or portions of large documents
  3. Flexible selection and editing regardless of XML structure
  4. Built-in redlining (change tracking) supporting textual AND structural changes
  5. Browse document sources with drag-and-drop.
  6. Full undo & redo
  7. Customizable attribute editor
  8. Search and replace
  9. Modular architecture to allow for extensive customization

Underlying Technology

  1. XML-based editing component
    • DOM 4 support
    • XPath Support
    • CSS Styling
    • Sophisticated event model
  2. HTTP-based resolver architecture for retrieving documents
    • Interpret citations
    • Deference URLs
    • WebDAV adaptors to document repositories
    • Query repositories with XQuery or databases with SQL
  3. AngularJS-based User Interface using HTML5
    • Component modules for easy customization
  4. XML repository for storing documents
    • Integrate any XML repository
    • Built-in support for eXist-db
  5. Validation & Publishing
    • XML Schema validator
    • XSL-FO publishing

We’ll reveal a lot more at the LEX Summer School later this month! If you’re interested in our QuickStart beta program, drop me a note at

Coming soon!!! A new web-based editor for Akoma Ntoso

Legal Citations and XML Editing for Legislation

It’s been quite some time since my last blog post – almost six months. The reason is that I’ve been very busy. We are doing a lot of exciting development within Xcential. We are developing a number of quite challenging projects around the globe.

If you’ve been following my blog, you may remember that I was working on an HTML5-based XML editor. That development was two years ago now. We’ve come a long way since then. The basic editor has been stripped down, componentized, and has being rebuilt to be a far more robust, scalable, and adaptable solution. There are more details below, which I will expand upon as the editor rolls out over the next year.

    Legal Citations

It was almost a year ago since the last Legislative Data and Transparency Conference in Washington D.C. (The next one is coming up) At that time, I spoke about the need for improved citation management in published XML documents. Well, we’ve come a long way since then. Earlier this year a Technical Committee was formed within OASIS to begin developing some standards. The Legal Citation Markup Technical Committee is now hard at work defining markup models for legal citations. I am a member of that TC.

The reference management part of our HTML5-based editor has been separated out as a separate project – as a citation interpreter and reference resolver. In our development tests, it’s integrated with eXist as a local repository. We also source documents from external sources such as LII.

We now have a few citation management projects underway, using our resolver technology. These are exciting projects which will be a huge step forward in improving how citations are managed. It’s premature to talk about this in any detail, so I’ll just leave this as a teaser of stuff to come.

    XML Editing for Legislation

The OASIS Legal Document ML Technical Committee is getting ready to make a large announcement. While this progress is being made, at Xcential we’ve been hard at work refining the state-of-the-art in XML editing.

If you recall the HTML5-based editor for Akoma Ntoso from a couple of years back, you may remember that is was based around all the new HTML5 technologies that have recently been incorporated into web browsers. We learned a lot from that effort – both good and bad. While we were able to get a reasonable tagging editor, using facilities that made editing far easier, we still faced difficulties when it came to basic XML editing and scalability.

So, we’ve taken a more ambitious approach to produce a very generalized XML editing platform. Using what we learned as the basis, our new editor is far more capable. Rather than relying on the mapping of XML into an equivalent HTML5 structure, we now directly use the XML facilities that are built into the browser. This approach is both far more robust and far more scalable. But the most exciting aspect is change tracking. We’re building change tracking directly into the basic editing engine – from the outset. This means that we can track all changes – whether the changes are in the text or in the structure. With all browsers now correctly implementing the standardized DOM Range model, our change tracking model has to be very sophisticated. While it’s hellishly complex, my experience in implementing change tracking technologies over many years is really coming in handy.

If you’ve used change tracking in XMetaL, you know the limitations of their technology. XMetaL’s range selection constrains how you can select which limits the flexibility of deletion. This simplifies the problem for the XMetaL customizer, but at a serious usability price. It’s one of the biggest limiting factors of XMetaL. We’re dealing with this problem once and for all with our new approach – providing a great way to implement legislative redlining.

Redlining Take a look at the totally contrived example on the left. It’s admittedly not a real example, it comes from my stress testing of the change tracking facilities. But look at what it does. The red text is a complex deletion that spans elements with little regard to the structure. In our editor, this was done with a single “delete” operation. Try and do this with XMetaL – it takes many operations and is a real struggle – even with change tracking turned off. In fact, even Microsoft Word’s handling of this is less than satisfactory, especially in more recent versions. Behind the scenes, the editor is using the model, derived from the schema, to control this deletion process to ensure that a valid document is the result.

If you’re particularly familiar with XMetal, you will notice something else too. That deletion cuts through the structure of a table!!!! XMetaL can only track changes within the text of table cells, not the structure. We’re making great strides towards proper legislative redlining technologies, and we are excited to work with our partners and clients to put them into practice.

Legal Citations and XML Editing for Legislation